What You Need to Know About Prostate Cancer


The prostate cancer is the most common tumor in men over 50 years of age. With the progress of medicine and other areas that interfere with health, it is expected for the next decades a growing population of men reaching age well above that. It is, therefore, that more cases of prostate cancer will be diagnosed. Currently, there are several campaigns in the country for early detection of cancer (cancer).

The prostate is a gland near the bladder surrounding the urethra in its initial portion. The prostatic secretions are the largest component of semen (or sperm).

The origin of prostate cancer is unknown, however, it is assumed that some factors may influence its development.

Among them, the genetic factor, since the incidence of cancer is higher in families carrying the disease. The presence of prostate cancer in the first degree relatives increases the likelihood of a diagnosis of cancer by 18%.

The hormone factor is very important because this tumor regresses in a significant manner to the removal of male hormones (eg, castration). Research undertaken in rats chronically treated with testosterone showed the development of prostate cancer in animals. Testosterone is not inducing cancer, however, already in men with cancer or with bias, testosterone stimulate their growth. Furthermore, the prostate cancer does not occur in eunuch.

Lately, much attention has been given to the diet factor. Diets rich in fat predispose to cancer and rich in fiber and tomatoes reduce their appearance. Based on epidemiological surveys in areas of higher incidence of prostate cancer, it was noted that diets rich in fat increases the risk of its occurrence. Perhaps because of interference in the metabolism of sex hormones, several other substances are under investigation such as vitamins, cadmium, zinc.

Venereal diseases unrelated to cancer of the prostate while the cytomegalovirus and herpesvirus type II carcinogenéticas induce changes in embryonic cells of hamster (small animal model).

The environmental factor is target, too, for research. Populations of low incidence of prostate cancer, when migrating to areas with high incidence, show an increase in the occurrence of cases. Smoke from cars, cigarettes, fertilizers and other chemicals are suspected.

In cases of prostate cancer symptoms, the patient was complaining of difficulty in urination, weak urinary jet, a feeling of not emptying your bladder well, or symptoms of urinary obstruction. Bleeding in the urine can be a complaint, although more rare.

The patient can express bone pain as a sign of advanced disease (metastases).

Anemia, weight loss, adenopathies (ANGUAGES) on the neck and the inguinal region may also be the first manifestation of the disease.

Every man from 45 years to perform the rectal touch and determination of PSA, particularly those with family history of prostate cancer (and breast cancer), regardless of symptoms. In case of touch and abnormal PSA or high, the patient should undergo a prostate biopsy with transrectal ultrasound. The fragments obtained will be brought to the anatomical and pathological examination. Once confirmed the diagnosis, the tumor should be staged. This means that tests should be requested so that we can know whether the tumor is confined to the prostate or has invaded adjacent organs (bladder, seminal vesicles, rectum) or already sent metastases. The bone scintigraphy is more useful in the investigation stage and gives us information about the metastases in the skeleton.

Other tests are any requests: alkaline phosphatase, CT scan of the abdomen, chest X-rays, radiographs of the skeleton.

The prostate cancer may be confined to the prostate in the form of a small nodule, but can also be restricted to it, but involving the entire gland. The prostate cancer, and found, may be compromising the limits of this body and invade other adjacent organs such as the seminal vesicles or the bladder. Valves and iliac lymph nodes are usually the first stage of metastasis to occur after bone metastases.

To describe the extent of the tumor (staging) there are several classifications (classification of Whitmore, TNM). Besides the fact tumor extension, it is important to know that prostate cancer presents a diversification of cells, more or less malignant, which also suffer a process of classification (Classification of Gleason).

Based on the staging of the tumor and its classification of Gleason is that if you choose the type of treatment.

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